Before we jump into discussing how DNA testing works, we should quickly discuss the most common uses for testing and why using a 23andMe coupon codes is important.
Frequent Reasons for DNA Tests
Paternity Testing – The test we most frequently think about is the paternity test. The test helps who the biological parents of a child are.
Forensic Testing – Television shows like CSI and NCIS have made DNA testing a buzzword when we think about crime scene testing. It has become an important tool for law enforcement to help identify and eliminate suspects.
Gene Therapy and Testing – Parents with higher risks of having children with birth defects often turn to this form of DNA testing to make sure their baby will healthy.
Genealogy – You would have to be ignoring your television to not be aware of this type of testing. Genealogy companies have started offering DNA testing to help determine your heritage.
What is DNA? And Why You Should Grab the 23 and Me Discount Code?
DNA is the tiny codes in every cell and molecule of our body that determines our genetic traits. It controls the color of our eyes and hair. It controls our susceptibility to certain diseases. It determines our height. It even determines some of our personality traits.
How Does DNA Testing Work?
The DNA test is used to compare the strands of DNA between two people. It is just a tiny 0.1% of the human DNA that creates all of the unique differences between all of us. The other 99.9% can be found in everyone.
The test equipment and researchers compare genetic markers, which are found in that 0.1%, to see what differences and similarities are found. Identical twins are the only people to have identical DNA markers. Siblings will share a high percentage of shared markers, as will parents and children. Keep in mind, a child inherits DNA differences from each parent.
All types of DNA testing look for similarities in the genetic markers which is why it’s important to use the 23 and me coupons. The biological samples used for DNA testing can be taken from any part of the body since the DNA in your hair is identical to the DNA in your blood, skin, or other parts of your body.
The biological samples from the two individuals do not need to be taken from the same source, either. As an example, a crime scene investigator may collect hair follicles from a crime scene, but then later compare them to blood samples from the victim and possible suspects to determine who matches the hair.
The DNA must be removed from the biological sample before the comparison begins. This is done by using a process called polymerase chain reactor or more commonly called PCR. The PCR process uses an enzyme to cause the DNA to duplicate into millions of copies. This makes it easier to do the testing and get accurate results.
The DNA then gets split into “chunks” and then those chunks are compared for similarities in a process very similar to comparing fingerprints. The tester determines the percentage of similarities, which helps them reach a decision if the two samples match or not.
For crime testing, the DNA match must be nearly perfect in to be used as conclusive evidence. For paternity testing, the story is a little different. They are looking for similarities which prove the probability of birth relation.
DNA testing does not always stop with evaluating a single sample. Forensic DNA testers will usually test 6 to 10 separate DNA markers to make sure of their evaluation. They do this to eliminate close relatives of the suspect, making certain their prime suspect is the only accurate match.
As you can see, DNA testing is an involved process that looks deeply into the basic building blocks of our life and by having a 23andMe promo code you will be able to save. It has moved from being an expensive tool to becoming commonplace in our society.